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# 94 notes tagged #definition

## analogue and digital

from Greek analogos meaning proportionate

## annotations

‘a note by way of explanation or comment added to a text or diagram: marginal annotations.’ Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) on macOS

## antilibrary

An antilibrary is a library of unread books.

## API

API or Application programming interface

## architecture

‘Architecture is differentiated from engineering and from nearly all other branches of design by the fact that the architect has to act as if no object in the result, except the earth itself, is given. His first preoccupation is neither with how to get the intended result, nor with what kind of result to aim at, but with deciding what the principal objects in the result shall be.’

## atavisme atavism

atavisme ‘det at en (primitiv) egenskap dukker opp igjen etter flere generasjoners forløp, som en arv fra fjerne slektsledd’

## Authentication vs. authorization

The distinction between authentication and authorization which summarises the concepts using simple questions.

breadcrumb navigation is a hierarchical style of navigation that tells you where you are in the hierarchy.

## Brick schema

Brick is an open-source effort to standardize semantic descriptions of the physical, logical and virtual assets in buildings and the relationships between them. Brick consists of an extensible dictionary of terms and concepts in and around buildings, a set of relationships for linking and composing concepts together, and a flexible data model permitting seamless integration of Brick with existing tools and databases. Through the use of powerful Semantic Web technology, Brick can describe the broad set of idiosyncratic and custom features, assets and subsystems found across the building stock in a consistent matter.

Bricks

## Brooks's law is an observation about software project management acco

‘Brooks’s law is an observation about software project management according to which “adding manpower to a late software project makes it later”. It was coined by Fred Brooks in his 1975 book The Mythical Man-Month. According to Brooks, under certain conditions, an incremental person when added to a project makes it take more, not less time.’

## chaekgeori

chaekgeori (책거리) is a Korean word that means ‘books and things’. It is a specific genre of still-life painting or graphics depicting books and things.

## co-design

Designing with the commissioner or target audience. In Norwegian the closest term would be samskaping.

## Commisioner instead of client

I’ve tried for a long time to find an English equivalent of the word oppdragsgiver to describe the person/group/organization that is commissioning a job.

## commutative

Mathematics involving the condition that a group of quantities connected by operators gives the same result whatever the order of the quantities involved, e.g. $a×b=b×a$.

## conviviality is the quality of being friendly, lively, cheerful or enjoyable

conviviality is the quality of being friendly, lively, cheerful or enjoyable. Noun.

## CSCL – Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

‘The CSCL community has traditionally focused on collaborative learning in small groups or communities. Given the rise of mass collaboration and learning at scale, the community is facing unprecedented opportunity to expand its views to advance collaborative learning at scale.’

## CSS

Cascading Style Sheets is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of HTML documents.

## Cum grano salis

Latin for ‘with a grain of salt’. A good name for an online text repository.

## decentralization

decentralization is the transfer of control from central, (increasingly) singular administrations or governments to smaller local administrations or offices.

## declarative programming

In declarative programming you expresses the logic of a program without defining every step the program needs to take to achieve the goal. (What should the program accomplish?)

## declarative vs imperative instructions

Examples of declarative vs imperative instructions. In both cases you should get spaghetti in the end, but you won’t be able to micromanage the process when asking only for spaghetti (declarative, high-level).

What is design?

## design patterns

Design patterns are sets of principles which can be used to form new designs. Be it a city’s architecture, a computer program or a book series.

## design tokens are values that can be used to make a design system

design tokens are values that can be used to make a design system. They can be any value. The best analogy I can think of are constants in programming.

## digital garden

A digital garden is a ‘way’ to publish in-process notes and writing as they are being produced.

## Digital Negative (DNG)

Digital Negative or DNG is an image formats developed, patented and licensed by Adobe. It is based on open standards and has a freely-available specification and source-code-based SDK.

## Edge computing

Edge computing refers to a concept in distributed computing that brings application logic physically closer to the user or data. Traditionally, we send data down the fiber, do the computing on centralized server, and send the information back to the user over the wire. This often implies long round trips in glass cables across the globe, thus latency.

## Entropy

Inevitable decay. Everything eventually becomes flat/cold. No movement.

## Eyeball parsers

Term first read in Gordon Brander's newsletter subconscious on substack. This is a great little term referring to the training of your eyes to ignore markup when reading prose littred with it.

## Eyeball parsers 1

Term first read in Gordon Brander's newsletter subconscious on substack. This is a great little term referring to the training of your eyes to ignore markup when reading prose littred with it.

## fermentation

The art of conserving through the organic breakdown of a substance by yeasts and bacteria.

## Functional programming

In functional programming the input and output values of pure functions are immutable.

## generative art

Generative or procedural art or graphics are programs to create drawings. They can be written for humans or computers to execute.

## geology is the science of the physical structure and substance of the earth

Geology is the science of the physical structure and substance of the earth, their history and the processes which act on them.’

## Hanlon's razor – Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity

‘Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity’

## High-level programming

‘High-level doesn’t mean that a language is intellectually lofty, only that it is a virtual machine interpreted by a lower-level machine, which in turn may be interpreted by an even lower level machine, until you get to the lowest level of on and off impulses that translate the Os and Xs into electronically readable form.’

## hot sauce

hot sauces are condiments made using spicy peppers. They can be made in a variety of ways. From fresh, dried or fermented chilies, yielding different flavour profiles.

## HTML

Is a standardised markup language primarily used to display documents in a web browser.

## hypermedia

is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks. From Hypermedia – Wikipedia

## Hypermedia document editing environment

The goal of this document is to gather thoughts on a new type of hypermedia editing environment.

## i18n (internationalisation)

i18n or internationalization is ‘the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes.’

## Image handling and compression in static websites

What are the different techniques used for handling images in static websites that are published from a local or remote repository of source files?

## imperative programming

In imperative programming you explicitly tell a program what to do and in which order to do it. (How should the program accomplish it?)

Integrere

## Interaction design

Term coined by Andy Cooper

## IPFS is a peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol

IPFS is a ‘peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol’

## IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifiers)

An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). A mapping from IRIs to URIs is defined, which means that IRIs can be used instead of URIs, where appropriate, to identify resources.

## komorebi

Komorebi (木漏れ日) – when the sunlight shines through moving leaves and casts a shadow.

## Law of the instrument

‘The law of the instrument, law of the hammer,[1] Maslow’s hammer (or gavel), or golden hammer[a] is a cognitive bias that involves an over-reliance on a familiar tool. As Abraham Maslow said in 1966, “I suppose it is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail.”’ From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_the_instrument

Linked Data ‘is structured data which is interlinked with other data so it becomes more useful through semantic queries.’

## manuscript

manuscript from Latin manu (hand) and scriptus (written). Literally means hand written. Often used to refer to an author’s unpublished text, hand written or typed.

## material

material is the matter from which things can be made.

## maxim

a maxim is ‘a short, pithy statement expressing a general truth or rule of conduct’[1]

This is a very draft definition. Metadesign is designing how we design.

## metonomy

‘the substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the turf for horse racing.’

## microtypography is concerned with individual components of typography

Microtypography is concerned with individual components of typography like letters, letterspacing, words, wordspacing, lines and linespacing. Microtypography affects reading and legibility. The term was coined by Jost Hochuli in 1987.

## minim

a minim is a short, pithy statement expressing a general untruth or rule of misconduct

## NLP (Natural language processing)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data. The goal is a computer capable of “understanding” the contents of documents, including the contextual nuances of the language within them. The technology can then accurately extract information and insights contained in the documents as well as categorize and organize the documents themselves.’

## Nonviolent communication

Nonviolent communication is an approach to communication based on principles of nonviolence. It is not a technique to end disagreements, but rather a method designed to increase empathy and improve the quality of life of those who utilize the method and the people around them. Nonviolent communication evolved from concepts used in person-centered therapy, and was developed by clinical psychologist Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s and 1970s.’

## Normativt og deskriptivt arbeid

Deskriptivt arbeid søker å beskrive. Det bidrar til forståelse, og ligger ofte til grunn for videre arbeid (både normativt og deskriptivt). Eksempler på deskriptivt arbeid kan være analytisk forskning.

## Offal comes from off ration

Offal comes from off ration.

## ontology

ontology is the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.

## open source

open source software is software released with permissive licenses. Depending on the details of the license, a user may contribute, modify, redistribute and commercialise the software.

## oppvinne

oppvinne / oppvinning

## Participatory design

‘Participatory design is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style.’

## Principle of parsimony

Principle of parsimony (also law of parsimony) is the scientific principle that things are usually connected or behave in the simplest or most economical way, especially with reference to alternative evolutionary pathways’[1]

## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography uses pairs of keys for encrypting and decrypting information. A public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. It is important to keep the private key safe and private, anyone with the key will be able to decrypt your information.

## Pérgola

Arkitektonisk struktur. Et slags tak uten vegger. Trenger ikke å være tett tak. Ofte for å beskytte mot solen. En delvis skygge, som et tre.

Insight comes less from doing crazy things that nobody’s ever done before and more from looking at what’s been on the table the entire time — right in front of everybody.

## recalcitrant

recalcitrant adjective having an obstinately uncooperative attitude towards authority or discipline

## Relational design

Relational design is about designing with, rather than for. It is about conversation and involvement in the process. It is about shared ownership.

## repository

‘A location for storage, often for safety or preservation’ from Wiktionary

## Resource Description Framework (RDF)

The Resource Description Framework is a family of World Wide Web Consortium specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats.

## Reverse engineering

Reverse engineering is the practice of taking something apart, figuring out its basic components to later be able to reconstruct it.

## RSA (cryptography)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. It is also one of the oldest. The acronym RSA comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977.’

## Schema

A schema (schemas or schemata in plural) are representations of things in the form of an outline or model. It is a way of structuring a representation.

## source-available

source-available means that the source code for a given program is openly available or accessible, but usually with a restrictive license.

## symposium vs seminar

A symposium is more like a small conference, where experts talk or discuss in front of an audience. A seminar is often more like a meeting of interested parties to discuss new research or ideas.

## synchronicity

‘the simultaneous occurrence of events which appear significantly related but have no discernible causal connection: such synchronicity is quite staggering.’ From the Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) on macOS

## Technology readiness level

Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) are a type of measurement system used to assess the maturity level of a particular technology. Each technology project is evaluated against the parameters for each technology level and is then assigned a TRL rating based on the projects progress. There are nine technology readiness levels. TRL 1 is the lowest and TRL 9 is the highest.’

## tf-idf reflects how important a word is to a document in a collection

term frequency–inverse document frequency is a numerical statistic that is intended to reflect how important a word is to a document in a collection or corpus. It is often used as a weighting factor in searches of information retrieval, text mining, and user modeling. The tf–idf value increases proportionally to the number of times a word appears in the document and is offset by the number of documents in the corpus that contain the word, which helps to adjust for the fact that some words appear more frequently in general.’

## The Cloud

The Cloud is an abstract, high-level concept aimed to obscuse the complexities of modern digital infrastructures. It allows us to talk about something that is incredibly complex and intricate it as it was a singular thing.

## Thesaurus

A thesaurus is a type of reference publication. A good thesaurus is not just a collection of synonyms and antonyms, but as with Roget’s thesaurus, ‘the user starts with an idea and flips through the book until he finds the word that best expresses it’.

## transclusion

Including part of another document in a way that is usually transparent to the end user.

## Triplestores

A triplestore or RDF store is a type of database built and optimized for storing Semantic triples (RDF triples) (subject–predicate–object). It can be queried through semantic queries.

## tsundoku

Tsundoku (積ん読) – the habit of acquiring books but letting them pile up without reading them, see antilibrary.

## user interfaces are the means by which a user and a system interacts

user interfaces are the means by which a user and a system interacts.

## verktøy

En oversikt over verktøy på norsk. Her kommer anbefalinger fra andre og noen egne erfaringer.

## WebDAV

‘Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) consists of a set of methods, headers, and content-types ancillary to HTTP/1.1 for the management of resource properties, creation and management of resource collections, URL namespace manipulation, and resource locking (collision avoidance).’

## wiki

A wiki is a website collaboratively edited by a community of users.

## wu wei – effortless action

Wu wei (Chinese: 無為; pinyin: wúwéi) is a concept literally meaning ‘inexertion’, ‘inaction’, or ‘effortless action’

## Zoom fatigue

Term possibly coined by L.M. Sacasas. A slightly complex set of observations that make many of us weary of video conferencing.