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# 94 notes tagged #review

## A Survey of the First 20 Years of Research on Semantic Web and Linked Data by Fabien Gandon

2018 paper by Fabien Gandon

## AI as a collaborator (thesephist)

Linus Lee’s November 2021 post AI as a creative collaboratorreally sums up some ideas about potential future uses for AI in creativity and productivity tools.

## Alternative business models for software development

What are some alernative business models for software development? Are there any new ones made possible by the decentralized web?

## Always talk to strangers

We were always told to never talk to strangers. Everyone said so. But no-one ever could explain why exactly that was such a bad idea.

Annotations as linked data, make own ontology for annotations, inspired by AtJSON? Idea by Daniel Mahal.

## Artificial intelligence (AI)

A field partially born out of the British need to decipher the German cryptography in their Enigma machine during World War II.

## Asynchronous collaboration

Building resilient systems that enable asynchronous collaboration is the future.

References

## authentication – Who are you

Authentication (from Greek: αὐθεντικός authentikos, “real, genuine”, from αὐθέντης authentes, “author”) is the act of proving an assertion, such as the identity of a computer system user. In contrast with identification, the act of indicating a person or thing’s identity, authentication is the process of verifying that identity. It might involve validating personal identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate, determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product or document is not counterfeit.’

## authorization – what are you allowed to do

Authorization. What are you allowed to do?

## automerge

A CRDT for JSON-like data structures. Implementations in JavaScript and rust.

## Automerge – a new foundation for collaboration software

Notes from talk by Martin Kleppmann https://youtu.be/Qytg0Ibet2E

## axiom

‘An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) “what is thought fitting”, “that which is thought worthy or fit” or “that which commends itself as evident”.’

## causality

causality is the relationship between cause and effect.

## chaekgeori

chaekgeori (책거리) is a Korean word that means ‘books and things’. It is a specific genre of still-life painting or graphics depicting books and things.

## Chimichurri and hard boiled eggs

This is a delicious flavour combination. And a great alternative to meat.

## commutative

Mathematics involving the condition that a group of quantities connected by operators gives the same result whatever the order of the quantities involved, e.g. $a×b=b×a$.

## Content management for emergence

Can we use a tool like obsidian as a content manager for quickly prototyping websites?

## conviviality is the quality of being friendly, lively, cheerful or enjoyable

conviviality is the quality of being friendly, lively, cheerful or enjoyable. Noun.

## Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a discipline or science concerned with control systems in both living things and machines. The core concept of cybernetics is circular causality or feedback control systems – the output of one action is taken as the input of the next.

## declarative vs imperative instructions

Examples of declarative vs imperative instructions. In both cases you should get spaghetti in the end, but you won’t be able to micromanage the process when asking only for spaghetti (declarative, high-level).

## Deep work

When you have a clear problem area and you set aside distraction-free time to work on it.

## Design Cybernetics – Navigating the New

Springer Design Research Foundations

## design patterns

Design patterns are sets of principles which can be used to form new designs. Be it a city’s architecture, a computer program or a book series.

## design tokens are values that can be used to make a design system

design tokens are values that can be used to make a design system. They can be any value. The best analogy I can think of are constants in programming.

## Designing for information emergence

An organic way of working with the development of content. Instead of sitting down and planning every single bit of content or information we might need, we can develop a system where this information grows naturally out of the information needs.

## distributed log (dlog)

‘A partitioned append-only log that all producers and consumers use as a pipeline.’ — Melina Lu in Functional distributed systems beyond request-response

## Edge computing

Edge computing refers to a concept in distributed computing that brings application logic physically closer to the user or data. Traditionally, we send data down the fiber, do the computing on centralized server, and send the information back to the user over the wire. This often implies long round trips in glass cables across the globe, thus latency.

## Eventual consistency

A consistency model that embraces the fact that there are multiple timelines for the different peers reading and writing to the same data. See CRDT.

## Evergreen notes should be atomic

To make it easier to connect the note or topic to other notes or topics.

## Good tools make maintenance more enjoyable

Make sure your process allows you to make maintenance an enjoyable job.

## Grading scheme for open data

Tim Berners-Lee has suggested a 5-star scheme for grading the quality of open data on the web, for which the highest ranking is Linked Open Data:’

## High-level programming

‘High-level doesn’t mean that a language is intellectually lofty, only that it is a virtual machine interpreted by a lower-level machine, which in turn may be interpreted by an even lower level machine, until you get to the lowest level of on and off impulses that translate the Os and Xs into electronically readable form.’

## hypermedia

is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks. From Hypermedia – Wikipedia

## In order of time, chronologically

I’m afraid of forgetting, so I record. But merely recording seems like it creates a growing anxiety about the mass of information I have, but cannot easily access.

## Intertwingularity

‘Intertwingularity is not generally acknowledged, people keep pretending they can make things deeply hierarchical, categorizable and sequential when they can’t. Everything is deeply intertwingled.’ — Ted Nelson

## IPFS is a peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol

IPFS is a ‘peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol’

## IPLD allows us to treat all hash-linked data structures as subsets of a unified information space

IPLD stands for InterPlanetary Linked Data and ‘is a single namespace for all hash-inspired protocols. Through IPLD, links can be traversed across protocols, allowing you to explore data regardless of the underlying protocol.’

## IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifiers)

An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). A mapping from IRIs to URIs is defined, which means that IRIs can be used instead of URIs, where appropriate, to identify resources.

## Jamstack

Jamstack stands for Javascript, API and markup. And has become a term to refer to building serverless, pre-rendered static sites, often with interactivity provided as a progressive enhancement. Features that normally require a server are usually implemented as serverless functions, or lambdas: Independent cloud functions with a public endpoint that let’s you do things on the server without managing a server yourself.

## komorebi

Komorebi (木漏れ日) – when the sunlight shines through moving leaves and casts a shadow.

Linked Data ‘is structured data which is interlinked with other data so it becomes more useful through semantic queries.’

## List of databases

Note that the relational part of relational databases refers to relational algebra, not relations between data.

## List of immersive art experiences

‘However, is there a downside to this trend for artainment? These types of installations draw large audiences and are definitely very easy to market. Stunning visuals are perfect for social media and advertising campaigns. Positive reviews online get more people through the door. In addition, visitors love to interact and take photos of the spectacle on their phones. But some may ask if all this is diluting the art itself.’

## List of open source typefaces

An overview over open source typefaces.

## Lo and Behold, Reveries of the Connected World (2016)

A 2016 film by Werner Herzog about the creation and state of the internet, technology and cybernetics.

You just have to revisit them! And using spaced repetition (with or without flashcards) is a way to incrementally revisit notes and ideas.

## maxim

a maxim is ‘a short, pithy statement expressing a general truth or rule of conduct’[1]

This is a very draft definition. Metadesign is designing how we design.

## minim

a minim is a short, pithy statement expressing a general untruth or rule of misconduct

## NLP (Natural language processing)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data. The goal is a computer capable of “understanding” the contents of documents, including the contextual nuances of the language within them. The technology can then accurately extract information and insights contained in the documents as well as categorize and organize the documents themselves.’

## Nonviolent communication

Nonviolent communication is an approach to communication based on principles of nonviolence. It is not a technique to end disagreements, but rather a method designed to increase empathy and improve the quality of life of those who utilize the method and the people around them. Nonviolent communication evolved from concepts used in person-centered therapy, and was developed by clinical psychologist Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s and 1970s.’

## Normativt og deskriptivt arbeid

Deskriptivt arbeid søker å beskrive. Det bidrar til forståelse, og ligger ofte til grunn for videre arbeid (både normativt og deskriptivt). Eksempler på deskriptivt arbeid kan være analytisk forskning.

Developing and using existing ontologies instead of developing specific schemas for a project means that the data can be consumed in a very rich way by many clients and applications.

## ontology

ontology is the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.

## Open hyperdocument structure

In a 2004 lecture at Stanford University, Doug Englebart talks about an ‘Open hyperdocument structure’ which you can have multiple interfaces reading from and writing to. A pedestrian user can have a simple interface, but an expert may have all bells and whistles.

## Open source software in governments

The UK government set the bar with their GOV.UK project which launched somewhere around 2011 with their Open Government Partnership outlined in the UK Action Plan 2011–13.

Organic navigation is a way of developing a site’s information architecture through use and hyperlinking from each document. This is a bottom-up approach, in contrast to a more traditional top-down hierarchical approach where we look at existing strucutres and new structures without going in depth with the content.

For the web.

## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography uses pairs of keys for encrypting and decrypting information. A public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. It is important to keep the private key safe and private, anyone with the key will be able to decrypt your information.

## Pérgola

Arkitektonisk struktur. Et slags tak uten vegger. Trenger ikke å være tett tak. Ofte for å beskytte mot solen. En delvis skygge, som et tre.

## Relational design

Relational design is about designing with, rather than for. It is about conversation and involvement in the process. It is about shared ownership.

## Resource Description Framework (RDF)

The Resource Description Framework is a family of World Wide Web Consortium specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats.

## Reverse engineering

Reverse engineering is the practice of taking something apart, figuring out its basic components to later be able to reconstruct it.

## RSA (cryptography)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. It is also one of the oldest. The acronym RSA comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977.’

## Second-order cybernetics

Second-order cybernetics ‘seeks the (co-) construction of understanding through conversation’. It is the cybernetics of Cybernetics.

## serverless

Serverless is term that generally refers to infrastructure or technologies that abstract away the server layer for the developer.

## Setting up for intuition

Setting up for intuition is all the planning and preparation that goes in to the beginning of a project. It will help you work more focussed and immersed in the ‘creative’ part of a project.

## Solid – How to get people on board

Has been trying to leverage existing technologies to meet its goals, but it has also had to create some new, and also create standards and shared vocabularies that will make this work possible.

## Solid – Social Linked Data

Solid is a standardised way for storing your cloud files and data with a provider you choose. You decide which people or applications have access to it.

## Spaced repetition

Spaced repetition is an evidence-based learning technique that is usually performed with flashcards. Newly introduced and more difficult flashcards are shown more frequently, while older and less difficult flashcards are shown less frequently in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect. The use of spaced repetition has been proven to increase rate of learning.’

## SSO – Single sign-on

‘Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication scheme that allows a user to log in with a single ID and password to any of several related, yet independent, software systems. True single sign-on allows the user to log in once and access services without re-entering authentication factors.’

## Structured availablity

If you’re any kind of leader or your job requires you to be available for others to ask questions, sparr with or get direction from, you should probably schedule the times where you’re available.

## tf-idf reflects how important a word is to a document in a collection

term frequency–inverse document frequency is a numerical statistic that is intended to reflect how important a word is to a document in a collection or corpus. It is often used as a weighting factor in searches of information retrieval, text mining, and user modeling. The tf–idf value increases proportionally to the number of times a word appears in the document and is offset by the number of documents in the corpus that contain the word, which helps to adjust for the fact that some words appear more frequently in general.’

## The Cloud

The Cloud is an abstract, high-level concept aimed to obscuse the complexities of modern digital infrastructures. It allows us to talk about something that is incredibly complex and intricate it as it was a singular thing.

## The three gates of speech

The three gates of speech. Before you speak, let your words pass through three gates.

## Thesaurus

A thesaurus is a type of reference publication. A good thesaurus is not just a collection of synonyms and antonyms, but as with Roget’s thesaurus, ‘the user starts with an idea and flips through the book until he finds the word that best expresses it’.

## Transferring files between devices

It’s surprisingly difficult to transfer a file between a phone and a computer or between two computers.

## Triplestores

A triplestore or RDF store is a type of database built and optimized for storing Semantic triples (RDF triples) (subject–predicate–object). It can be queried through semantic queries.

## true serverless

A true serverless system is a distributed system where there actually aren’t any servers. In true peer-to-peer systems there is no distinction between a server and a client, they are both just nodes in the network.

## Turtle is a format for expressing RDF data

Turtle or Terse RDF Triple Language is a syntax and format for expressing RDF data.

## Verifiable credentials

Verifiable credentials (VCs) are an open standard for digital credentials. They can represent information found in physical credentials, such as a passport or license, as well as new things that have no physical equivalent, such as ownership of a bank account.’

## What programmers do

‘That’s what programmers do. They think of machines people might want to use, and figure out ways to describe those special machines to general machines-computers, that is.’

## Wicked problems

Wicked problems are complex and challenging social and cultural problems that usually have changing requirements and no clear outcome.

## wiki

A wiki is a website collaboratively edited by a community of users.

## Working with manuscripts and authors – Hypermanuscripts

Hypermanuscripts?

## workshop questions not ideas

Workshop questions not ideas. Brainstorming ideas can be counterproductive. But brainstorming open questions together can be very rewarding.

## Writing data schemas with ShEx

Make a tutorial on how to create a schema for the measurements of a geitbåt.

## Writing Gallery Text at the V&A

Writing Gallery Text at the V&A is a really great document outlining and describing ways to write compelling and succinct text for museums and galleries. The guidelines are helpful for anyone writing short, scannable and informative copy.

## Writing is a very efficient medium to think through things

Writing is a very efficient medium to think through things.